Reflexology While Undergoing Coronary Angiography -100 males

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A Randomized-Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Reflexology on Anxiety of Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography


Background: The anxiety reduction before coronary angiography has clinical advantages and is one of the objectives of nursing. Reflexology is a non-invasive method that has been used in several clinical situations. Applying reflexology might have effect on the reduction of anxiety before coronary angiography.

Objectives: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to investigate the effect of reflexology on anxiety among patients undergoing coronary angiography.

Patients and methods: This trial was conducted in Shahid Beheshti Hospital, in Kashan, Iran. One hundred male patients who were undergoing coronary angiography were randomly enrolled into intervention and placebo groups. The intervention protocol was included 30 minutes of general foot massage and the stimulation of three reflex points including solar plexus, pituitary gland, and heart. The placebo group only received the general foot massage. Spielbergers state trait anxiety inventory was used to assess the anxiety experienced by patients. Data was analyzed using Man-Witney, Wilcoxon and Chi-square tests. The stepwise multiple regressions used to analyze the variables that are involved in anxiety reduction.

Results: The mean range of anxiety decreased from 53.24 to 45.24 in reflexology group which represented 8 score reduction (P = 0.0001). The reduction in anxiety was 5.9 score in placebo group which was also significant (P = 0.0001). The anxiety reduction was significantly higher in reflexology group (P = 0.014). The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that doing reflexology can explain the 7.5% of anxiety reduction which made a significant model.

Conclusions: Reflexology can decrease the anxiety level before coronary angiography. Therefore, reflexology before coronary angiography is recommended.

Keywords: Anxiety; Coronary angiography; Foot massage.


Molavi Vardanjani M, Masoudi Alavi N, Razavi NS, Aghajani M, Azizi-Fini E, Vaghefi SM. A randomized-controlled trial examining the effects of reflexology on anxiety of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Nurs Midwifery Stud. 2013;2(3):3‐9. doi:10.5812/nms.12167

Actionable Information for Reflexologists

In this section you will find how this research paper enacted reflexology to produce these results. We at Reflexology.Report distilled the Methodology portion of this research paper and we are presenting you with:

  • General methods used
  • Organization and duration of sessions
  • Reflexology points

The purpose of this section is to make this research paper useful to all reflexologists. This is a tool developed by the Center of Reflexology and Research (Κέντρο Ρεφλεξολογίας και Έρευνας) in Greece and supervised volunteers from across the world.

The foot was massaged from ankle to toe with moderate pressure using both hands for 10 times. The foot was hold with one hand and the other hand rotated the foot at the ankle. This procedure repeated eight times. After general foot massage, the three reflexology areas of solar plexus, pituitary gland, and heart were used for stimulation. The reflexologist exerted firm downward pressure with his thumb in the areas for two minutes in every area. The pressure regulated in a way that made the upper thumb white but patients did not feel any pain. Then a circle massage was applied to the specific points.

Το κάτω άκρο δέχτηκε μάλαξη από τον αστράγαλο έως τα δάχτυλα με μέτρια πίεση χρησιμοποιώντας και τα δύο χέρια για 10 φορές. Το πόδι κρατήθηκε με το ένα χέρι και με το άλλο περιστράφηκε ο αστράγαλος. Αυτή η διαδικασία επαναλήφθηκε οκτώ φορές. Μετά από αυτήν τη μάλαξη, τα τρία ρεφλεξολογικά σημεία του ηλιακού πλέγματος, της υπόφυσης και της καρδιάς χρησιμοποιήθηκαν για διέγερση. Ο ρεφλεξολόγος άσκησε σταθερή πίεση προς τα κάτω με τον αντίχειρά του για δύο λεπτά σε κάθε περιοχή. Η πίεση ρυθμίστηκε με τρόπο που έκανε τον αντίχειρα λευκό σε χρώμα αλλά οι δέκτες δεν ένιωθαν πόνο. Στη συνέχεια εφαρμόστηκε κυκλική μάλαξη στα συγκεκριμένα σημεία.

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