30 Comparisons of Reflexology and Connective Tissue Manipulation in Primary Dysmenorrhea

7 mins read
Comparison of Reflexology and Connective Tissue Manipulation in Participants with Primary Dysmenorrhea


Objective: The aim of this interventional correlational study is to compare the effects of foot reflexology (FR) and connective tissue manipulation (CTM) in subjects with primary dysmenorrhea.

Design: A total of 30 participants having primary dysmenorrhea completed the study. Data, including demographics (age, body-mass index), menstrual cycle (age at menarche, menstrual cycle duration, time since menarche, bleeding duration), and menstrual pain characteristics (intensity and duration of pain, type and amount of analgesics), were recorded.

Effect of dysmenorrhea on participants’ concentration in lessons and in sports and social activities was assessed by using the visual analog scale. Participants rated their menstruation-related symptom intensity through the Likert-type scale.

FR was applied to 15 participants for 3 days a week and CTM was performed on 15 participants for 5 days a week. Treatments were performed during one cycle, which started at the third or fourth day of menstruation and continued till the onset of next menstruation.

Assessments were performed before treatment (first menstruation), then after termination of the treatment because of the next menstruation’s onset (second menstruation), and ∼1 month after at the consecutive menstrual period (third menstrual cycle).

Results: Time-dependent changes in duration and intensity of pain along with analgesic amount show that both treatments provided significant improvements (p < 0.05) and no superiority existed between the groups (p > 0.05).

A similar result was obtained in terms of time-dependent changes in concentration in lessons and difficulty in sports and social activities due to dysmenorrhea.

Menstruation-related symptoms were found to be decreased after treatment and in the following cycle with both treatments (p < 0.05) where no difference existed between the groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Both FR and CTM can be used in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and menstruation-related symptoms as these methods are free from the potentially adverse effects of analgesics, noninvasive, and easy to perform.



Demirtürk F, Erkek ZY, Alparslan Ö, Demirtürk F, Demir O, Inanir A. Comparison of Reflexology and Connective Tissue Manipulation in Participants with Primary Dysmenorrhea. J Altern Complement Med. 2016 Jan;22(1):38-44. doi: 10.1089/acm.2015.0050. Epub 2015 Sep 18. PMID: 26382885.

The conclusion of this research paper in Greek

The purpose of this section is to make this research paper useful to Greek speaking reflexologists. This is a tool developed by the Center of Reflexology and Research (Κέντρο Ρεφλεξολογίας και Έρευνας) in Greece and supervised volunteers from across the world.

Μετάφραση των συμπερασμάτων της συγκεκριμένης έρευνας:

Τόσο η πελματιαία ρεφλεξολογία όσο και ο χειρισμός του συνδετικού ιστού μπορούν να χρησιμοποιηθούν στη θεραπεία της πρωτοπαθούς δυσμηνόρροιας και των εμμηνορροιακών συμπτωμάτων, καθώς αυτές οι μέθοδοι είναι απαλλαγμένες από τις δυνητικά δυσμενείς επιδράσεις των αναλγητικών, είναι μη επεμβατικές και εύκολες στην εφαρμογή.

Previous publication

Reflexology versus segmental massage in reducing pain of migraines 48 cases

Next publication

Self-reflexology on peripheral neuropathy, peripheral skin temperature, anxiety, and depression in 32 patients undergoing chemotherapy