Hand Reflexology on 135 Females with Coronary Artery Disease

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Comparison of the Effects of Hand Reflexology Versus Acupressure on Anxiety and Vital Signs in Female Patients With Coronary Artery Diseases


Hospitalization in the cardiac care unit can increase anxiety in patients. This study aimed to compare hand reflexology versus acupressure on anxiety and vital signs in female patients with coronary artery diseases.

This double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial with a pre- and post-intervention design was conducted on 135 female patients with coronary artery diseases.

Female patients hospitalized in a cardiac care unit were randomly divided into three groups of hand reflexology, acupressure and placebo (n = 45 patients in each group) using blocking and a table of random numbers.

Data was collected using the Spielberger anxiety inventory. Also, their vital signs were measured before, immediately after and half an hour after the intervention.

Data analysis was performed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Before the intervention, there was no statistically significant difference in anxiety levels between the groups (p > 0.05).

Also, the effects of hand reflexology and acupressure immediately and half an hour later on the reduction of anxiety and vital signs were equal (p < 0.05). Implementation of hand reflexology and acupressure can have positive effects on anxiety and vital signs in patients with coronary artery diseases.

They can reduce patients’ anxiety with an equal effectiveness.

Keywords: acupressure; anxiety; complementary therapies; coronary artery disease; hand reflexology; vital sign.


Rahmani Vasokolaei Z, Rejeh N, Heravi-Karimooi M, et al. Comparison of the Effects of Hand Reflexology versus Acupressure on Anxiety and Vital Signs in Female Patients with Coronary Artery Diseases. Healthcare (Basel). 2019;7(1):26. Published 2019 Feb 11. doi:10.3390/healthcare7010026

Actionable Information for Reflexologists

In this section you will find how this research paper enacted reflexology to produce these results. We at Reflexology.Report distilled the Methodology portion of this research paper and we are presenting you with:

  • General methods used
  • Organization and duration of sessions
  • Reflexology points

The purpose of this section is to make this research paper useful to all reflexologists. This is a tool developed by the Center of Reflexology and Research (Κέντρο Ρεφλεξολογίας και Έρευνας) in Greece and supervised volunteers from across the world.

Ingham’s method was used to apply massage on the women’s hands for 10 min per hand. The massage was applied with the thumb, starting from the forearm, moving to the wrist, palm, back of the hand and, lastly, fingers.  The patients received two minutes of reflexology massage at three reflexology points for the solar plexus, pituitary gland and heart with a moderate pressure on each hand. Firm downward pressure was applied with the thumb at the points for two minutes in every area. The pressure level was so that the upper thumb was colorless, but the patients did not feel discomfort. A circular rotational massage was performed at the same points.

Η μέθοδος Ingham χρησιμοποιήθηκε για την εφαρμογή ρεφλεξολογίας στα χέρια για 10 λεπτά ανά χέρι. Εφαρμόστηκε με τον αντίχειρα, ξεκινώντας από το αντιβράχιο, στη συνέχεια στον καρπό, την παλάμη, το πίσω μέρος του χεριού και, τέλος, στα δάχτυλα. Οι ασθενείς έλαβαν δύο λεπτά ρεφλεξολογίας στα εξής τρία ρεφλεξολογικά σημεία:  το ηλιακό πλέγμα, την υπόφυση και την καρδιά με μέτρια πίεση σε κάθε χέρι. Η σταθερή πίεση προς τα κάτω εφαρμόστηκε με τον αντίχειρα στα σημεία αυτά, για δύο λεπτά σε κάθε περιοχή. Το επίπεδο πίεσης ήταν τέτοιο ώστε ο αντίχειρας να γίνεται άχρωμος, αλλά οι ασθενείς δεν ένιωθαν δυσφορία. Πραγματοποιήθηκε κυκλική περιστροφική μάλαξη στα ίδια σημεία.

Full PDF for the Reflexology Research Paper


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